Some clams were dated as having died 50,000 years ago, and they were still alive!
Many Middle Eastern artifacts, preserved under ideal conditions, were consistently giving dates wrong by 20%. Let's look critically at assumption 2, that nothing else affects the ratio in a dead organism.
When you have records dated by the scribes, as well as actual mummies and the carbon-14 dates are not off by hundreds of years but by thousands, you either have to throw away every historical record, or else there was a general failure with carbon-14 dating. Solar intensity, the earth's magnetism, and CO To "face up" to the absolute age problem, scientists devised calibration scales based on tree rings, lake varves, and ice cores.
Oak trees can live for 200-300 years, and they grow a new tree ring every year.
It is better in that an individual bristlecone pine can live for 2,000 years.
Anyway, all these different calibrations from around the world agree with each other within about 5%. 1973, Stuiver & Pearson 1986, Stuiver & Reimer 1986, van der Plicht & Mook 1989 and others).
While this soaking removes some good material too, it does not change the C ratio, but it is altered the same way in the calibration samples too.
For example, while the Catholic Church was unwilling to let scientists burn a square inch piece of the Shroud of Turin, when mass spec technology advanced, it was willing to let them burn a thread, and that was all that was needed. Finally, one reads the age from a calibration chart of age vs. In the Radiocarbon journal the ratio is reported, so readers can calibrate for themselves.
It is worse, in that the rings are very thin, and roughly 5% of the time the tree either does not grow a ring in a year or else grows two rings. Or are the above statements all false, and the truth is something else?This method addresses questions on the Shroud of Turin, the archaeological reliability of the Bible, reliable preservation of the Bible, and the Young Earth Theory. However, solar radiation creates a small percentage of carbon with two extra neutrons and a molecular weight of 14.time can tell exactly how long ago the organism died. For any logical method, if the assumptions are right, and the reasoning is valid, then the conclusion is right. Carbon-14 dating assumptions ratio has never changed. Nothing but radioactive decay would alter the ratio in a dead plant or animal. We will look at the method first, and then the assumptions.There are three simple steps to getting a carbon-14 date: sample preparation, getting the ratio, and using a calibration chart to get the age from the ratio. Before dating, samples are first soaked in an 8% HCL, and then an Na OH caustic solution to clean them of contaminants, such as dirt, microbes, and tree sap.A more difficult to deal problem with radiocarbon dating came from Egyptian and Mesopotamian artifacts when the dates were already known.In Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, and Sumeria, there are "king lists" of who reigned and for how long.Still others did this in Ireland, and others in England.Finally American researchers did this with bristlecone pine trees in Arizona.(On the other hand, if you don't like puns, you might not.) So if you believe your assumptions, use good methods, what could go wrong?Well, it turns out the problems with early carbon-14 were so severe, that many historians were on the verge of abandoning it.