There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM, and it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although the laws are poorly enforced.Since 2010 the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood.After the clitoris has been satisfactorily amputated ...the circumciser can proceed with the total removal of the labia minora and the paring of the inner walls of the labia majora.
Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group.
is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.
The World Health Organization (a UN agency) created a more detailed typology: Types I–III vary in how much tissue is removed; Type III is equivalent to the UNICEF category "sewn closed"; and Type IV describes miscellaneous procedures, including symbolic nicking.
Type II (excision) is the complete or partial removal of the inner labia, with or without removal of the clitoral glans and outer labia.