The research concerning adolescents has often examined different outcomes, including dating as well as other forms of violence committed by adolescents., exposure to domestic violence, destructive communication, gender stereotyping, and attitudes accepting of domestic violence mediated the observed relationship between ethnic minority status, low levels of parent education, and expressed In one large sample of African-American males living in or near public housing projects, violence exposure was strongly associated with expressed violence, but the effects were moderated when youth were less depressed and had a stronger sense of purpose in life.
Researchers who separated the effects of domestic and community violence found that only domestic violence affected the functioning of a group of high-risk adolescents and that the impact was moderated by the adolescents’ self-reported social support.
These self-reports of violent behaviors indicated that there was hitting, slapping, or some other form of physical harm during the dating period.
Students with poorer grades (“mostly Ds and Fs”), African-Americans and non-Hispanic students, and students from the Northeast area of the United States were at greatest risk for DV is the leading cause of injury for women between the ages of 15 and 44, resulting in 2 million injuries and almost 1300 deaths annually.
Current estimates in the United States suggest that approximately 50% of sexual assault cases involving adolescents and young adults involve alcohol consumption ( reported on alcohol use, IPV, and sexual coercion and HIV among 3,422 Ugandan women in adolescence and early young adulthood.
The findings indicated that alcohol use before sex was associated with a higher rate of physical violence and sexual coercion, as well as a higher prevalence of HIV.
IPV is also commonly known as domestic violence, wife abuse, or when referring to adolescents and young adults, as .
Adolescents, especially girls, are at increased risk for STIs, including HIV, as a result of coercive and violent sex.
Sexual coercion is associated with having multiple sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, substance use, and STIs (From a public health perspective, primary prevention of IPV is desirable, although most of the available research focuses on the health care response to the survivors of IPV, both while a woman is still exposed to abuse (secondary prevention) and when she is experiencing the long-term health problems associated with IPV (tertiary prevention).
IPV is the term that is used most frequently throughout this chapter since it clearly denotes violence between individuals in a romantic or close relationship, but is not limited by age, marital status, cohabitation, or sexuality, and recognizes that women may be perpetrators as well as victims of IPV.
This chapter is written from a social epidemiologic perspective which ‘considers how social interactions and collective human activities affect health’ (ref 2,p.3).