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And on the account of Suetonius, Augustus ordered the burning of 2,000 magical scrolls in 13 BC.

Betz states: "As a result of these acts of suppression, the magicians and their literature went underground.

This may suggest that magic was associated (in this time) with practices that went against the natural order, or against wise and good forces (Circe is called a witch by a companion of Odysseus).

The 6th century BCE gives rise to scattered references of magoi at work in Greece.

Book X describes the encounter of the central hero Odysseus with the Titan Circe, "She who is sister to the wizard Aeetes, both being children of the Sun..the same mother, Perse the daughter of the Ocean," These are the three most common elements that characterize magic as a system in the later Hellenistic and greco-Roman periods of history.

Another important definitional element to magic is also found in the story.

Betz notes book burnings in regards to texts such as the Greek Magical Papyri, when he cites Ephesus in the Acts of the Apostles (Acts 19: 10).It is quite clear that the magicians who wrote and used the Greek papyri were Hellenistic in outlook.Hellenization, however, also includes the egyptianizing of Greek religious traditions.The concept of magic however came to represent a more coherent and self-reflective tradition exemplified by magicians seeking to fuse varying non-traditional elements of Greco-Roman religious practice into something specifically called magic."In this syncretism, the indigenous ancient Egyptian religion has in part survived, in part been profoundly hellenized.In its Hellenistic transformation, the Egyptian religion of the pre-Hellenistic era appears to have been reduced and simplified, no doubt to facilitate its assimilation into Hellenistic religion as the predominant cultural reference.It is known that philosophers of the Neopythagorean and Neoplatonic schools, as well as Gnostic and Hermetic groups, used magical books and hence must have possessed copies.But most of their material vanished and what we have left are their quotations." According to Robert Parker, "magic differs from religion as weeds differ from flowers, merely by negative social evaluation"; magic was often seen as consisting of practices that range from silly superstition to the wicked and dangerous.This association was in turn the product of the Hellenistic fascination for (Pseudo‑)Zoroaster, who was perceived by the Greeks to be the "Chaldean", "founder" of the Magi and "inventor" of both astrology and magic, a meaning that still survives in the modern-day words "magic" and "magician".Herodotus, Xenophon, Plutarch – did use magos in connection with their descriptions of (Zoroastrian) religious beliefs or practices, the majority seem to have understood it in the sense of "magician".Circe is presented as being in the form of a beautiful woman (a temptress) when Odysseus encounters her on an island.In this encounter Circe uses her wand to change Odysseus’ companions into swine.

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