These charge defects are potential sites of electron storage with a variety of trap-depth energies.
A subpopulation of stored electrons with trap depths of ~1.3 to 3 e V is a subsequent source for time-diagnostic luminescence emissions.
Often mineral grains that are fresh from a bedrock sources have significantly lower luminescence emissions per radiation dose in comparison to grains that have cycled repeatedly. (b) The luminescence for grains is zeroed by exposure to sunlight with erosion and transport.
OSL dating provides an estimate of the time elapsed with latest period of burial and thus, yields a depositional age (Fig. (c) With burial and exposure to ionizing radiation free electrons are stored in charge defects within grains crystal lattice.
The recent development of charge transfer techniques for potassium feldspar (e.g. A common approach in OSL dating is to use SAR protocols on quartz aliquots with the protocols customized for a specific sample, a study site or area (Fig. The SAR approach is predicated on a number of assumptions.
post IR290) that use elevated preheats (~290˚C) to transfer electrons from stable deeper to shallower traps for ease of measurement has extended dating possibilities to 10 timescales for well solar reset grains (Duller and Wintle, 2012). 3: (a) Determination of equivalent dose (in grays) using the single aliquot regenerative (SAR) protocols, where the natural luminescence emission is Ln/Tn and the regenerative dose is Lx/Tx; sensitivity changes are corrected by the administration of a small text dose (e.g. First, that the fast component of luminescence emissions, light released within the first 4 seconds, is the dominant signal, usually 30 aliquots of quartz or feldspar grains (Fig. Each aliquot often contains 10’s to 100’s of quartz grains; the total number dependent on grain size (e.g. Statistical analyses of equivalent dose distributions are critical to render accurate OSL ages with specific age models (Galbraith and Roberts, 2012).
Free electrons are generated within the mineral matrix by exposure to ionizing radiation from the radioactive decay of daughter isotopes in the 235U, 238U and 232Th decay series, and a radioactive isotope of potassium, 40K, with lesser contributions from the decay of 85Rb and cosmic sources.
The radioactive decay of 40K releases beta and gamma radiation, whereas the decay in the U and Th series generates mostly alpha particles and some beta and gamma radiation.
In contrast, feldspar minerals are often less abundant, and have a troubling signal instability (anomalous fading), though yield considerably brighter OSL emissions.
Exposure of mineral grains to light or heat (at least 300˚C) reduces the luminescence to a low and definable residual level.
Often this luminescence “cycle" occurs repeatedly in many depositional environments with signal acquisition of mineral grains by exposure to ionizing radiation during the burial period and signal resetting (“zeroing") with light exposure concurrent to sediment erosion and transportation. (a) Luminescence is acquired in mineral grains with exposure to ionizing radiation and trapping of electrons.
Alpha particles are about 90 to 95% less effective in inducing luminescence compared to beta and gamma radiation.
Thus, the population of stored electrons in lattice-charge defects increases with prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation and the resolved luminescence emission increases with time.