He also notes the writings of a 10th-century Karaite who refers to Philo's works, showing that the Karaites made use of Philo's writings in the development of their movement.Later Medieval Karaite commentators did not view Philo in a favorable light.According to a 12th-century Rabbinist account, in approximately 760, Shelomoh ben Ḥisdai II, the Jewish exilarch in Babylon died, and two brothers among his nearest kin, ‘Anan ben David (whose name according to the Rabbinist account was ‘Anan ben Shafaṭ, but was called ben David due to his Davidic lineage) and Ḥananyah, were next in order of succession.Eventually Ḥananyah was elected by the rabbis of the Babylonian Jewish colleges (the Geonim) and by the notables of the chief Jewish congregations, and the choice was confirmed by the Caliph of Baghdad.Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation.As a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud.According to Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud, in his Sefer Ha Qabbalah, the Karaite movement crystallized in Baghdad in the Gaonic period (circa 7th–9th centuries) under the Abbasid Caliphate in what is present-day Iraq.This is the view universally accepted among Rabbinic Jews.
Abraham Geiger, a 19th-century German scholar who founded Reform Judaism, posited a connection between the Karaites and a remnant of the Sadducees, the 1st-century Jewish sect that followed the Hebrew Bible literally and rejected the Pharisees' notion of an Oral Torah even before it was written.Historians have argued over whether Karaism has a direct connection to anti-Rabbinic sects and views, such as those of the Sadducees, dating back to the end of the Second Temple period (70 CE), or whether Karaism represents a novel emergence of similar views.Karaites have always maintained that, while there are some similarities to the Sadducees, due to the rejection of Rabbinical authority and the Oral Law, there are major differences.' 'There is the written law,' they replied, whoever wishes to study it may come and do so; take no heed of the oral law.' He followed their advice and expelled the Sages and among them Simon b. Shētaḥ returned with his disciples from Alexandria, and restored tradition to its former condition.Karaism had, however, taken root among people who rejected the oral law, and called all kinds of proofs to their aid, as we see to-day.Accordingly, some scholars trace the origin of Karaism to those who rejected the Talmudic tradition as an innovation. At this period arose the doctrine of the Karaites in consequence of an incident between the Sages and King Jannai who was a priest.Judah Halevi, an 11th-century Jewish philosopher and rabbi, wrote a defense for Judaism entitled Kuzari, placing the origins of Karaism in the first and second centuries BCE, to the reign of Alexander Jannaeus ("King Jannai"): After him came Judah b. His mother was under suspicion of being a 'profane' woman.When interpreting the Tanakh, Karaites strive to adhere to the plain or most obvious meaning (peshat) of the text; this is not necessarily the literal meaning, but rather the meaning that would have been naturally understood by the ancient Israelites when the books of the Tanakh were first written.By contrast, Rabbinic Judaism relies on the legal rulings of the Sanhedrin as they are codified in the Midrash, Talmud, and other sources to indicate the authentic meaning of the Torah.is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, which considers the Oral Torah, as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah.